Senin, Maret 22, 2010

Universal Postal Union: A Transformation in Globalized Communication

Universal Postal Union: A Transformation in Globalized Communication
Gracia Paramitha, 070710415

In the 19th century the world has thought about the agenda to universalize the postal code as a form of a communication in term of a long distance that days. Because of the world’s need to communicate globally with the consensus of the postal code therefore the world leaders in the 19th century has agreed to create such union to maintain and regulate the postal code throughout the world because even in the 19th century, the transnational communication through the post letter was very needed. First attempt to establish some general principles governing international postal service was made at an international conference in Paris in 1863. This international conference that was held in Paris was previously initiated by the agreements of nations of a postal code, but the difference was that these agreements were made bilaterally (sometimes multilaterally but not universal) therefore the states thought that it was the time to universalize the postal code system to maintain the need of the global citizens to communicate transnationally. This paper will try to give an exposition of the Universal Postal Union as the organization that govern the world’s postal system.

History of The Postal System Universalization
The first intention to create such universal postal code system was started by Sir Rowland Hill from England in 1840. It was first a national (English) postal reform just after Sir Rowland Hill introduced the system whereby postage on letters had to be prepaid. Furthermore, uniform rates were charged for all letters of a certain weight in the domestic service, regardless of the distance travelled. Sir Rowland Hill was also known as the first man that introduced “stamp system” throughout the world. Therefore the reformation of the postal system that potentially could become a more advanced postal system was first started by Sir Rowland Hill as a national postal system. Such national postal system reformation fascinated all countries globally including The United States of America. In 1863, United States Postmaster General Montgomery Blair called a conference in Paris. Delegates from 15 European and American countries met and succeeded in laying down a number of general principles for mutual agreements. But the scope of their decisions was limited and they were not able to settle on an international postal agreement. Then it was continued by a German called Heinrich Von Stephan in 1874 who was successful in persuading the Switzerland government to make a conference that later became the embryo of the Berne Treaty, the treaty that made Universal Postal Union in existence.

Universal Postal Union as United Nations’ Specialized Agency
When The United Nations appeared as a form of the world’s new global governance, Universal Postal Union became automatically integrated to the United Nations as a specialized agency. The UPU became a specialized agency of the United Nations on 1 July 1948. Since then its relations and active cooperation with other international bodies have grown and intensified. The cooperation that had been made by Universal Postal United was (and still is) not always with other United Nations’ programme but also its other specialized agency.

UPU “Corporate Social Responsibility” Towards Climate Change and Other Global Issues.
The UPU maintains particularly close ties with United Nations programme such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the field of postal development, the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) to help impede the shipment of drugs in the mail, and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to increase awareness for the environment among Posts.
In most recent years, Universal Postal Union have come to realize the effect their business has on the environment and implemented an environmental project team and adopted an environmental policy. Its activity report was published in the 'Beijing Declaration on Environmental Protection. In their efforts to protect the environment, Posts are embarking on recycling programme, introducing environment-friendly products, using recycled material and participating in various environment awareness programme. Posts also issue postage stamps to promote the environment, endangered species and nature conservation. A number of Posts have started experimenting with non-polluting resources such as electric vehicles and alternative fuel blends and have introduced energy conservation measures in buildings.

Carlton, R. Scott.(2008) "Stamps and Stamp Collecting." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation
Estrada, Raul A. (2009). UPU Releases Result of Carbon Emission Inventory. accessed on December 29th 2009.
Universal Postal Union (2009) “History of UPU” accessed on December 27th 2009
Universal Postal Union (UPU) . (2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica

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